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Direct pressure: Place your hand directly over the wound and apply pressure viagra vigour 800mg discount, firm and steady until the bleeding stops buy viagra vigour 800 mg line. Elevation: Elevate the bleeding part of the body above the level of the heart so that the flow of blood will slow down in that part and blood clothing take place. Pressure Points: Applying pressure over the pressure points pressing over the underlying bone pres sure points on the arms (brachial pressure point) on the groin (femoral pressure point). Applying a tourniquet: A standard tourniquet is a piece of web belting about 36" long with a buckle device to hold it tightly in place when applied. Management: Apply direct pressure over the wound with your fingers and palms, with clean pad/cloth you can ask the casuality to apply direct pressure herself. If you suspect the casuality is going into shock, raise and support her legs so that they are above the level of her heart. Dial for an ambulance and transport the casuality to hospital till then the first aider should not leave the casuality until taken over by doctor or nurse. Advise her not to speak, swallow, cough spit because she may disturb the blood clots that have formed in the nose. The nervous system is affected and later if the condition of shock continues, the circulation of blood gradually fails and the patient dies. Prompt first aid treatment is needed to prevent shock increasing, and to help the patient to recover from the primary shock. And look pale, or he may collapse with signs and symptoms as follows: (1) He feels faint, weak and giddy. If shock is severe, raise the lower part of the body unless is injury to the head nor chest 3) Loosens tight clothing, but do not remove clothing 4) If he feels cold, cover him with the blanket, but do not try to warm him by any means 5) Offer him a warm sweat drink, e. Avoid causing pain 7) If there are severe injuries, or shock increases, get the causality to the health center or hospital without delay. Aims of first aid treatment: 1) Have the source of electricity switched off 2) Check breathing, and give artificial respiration immediately if he is not breathing. To bandage a limb, work from below upwards, and from inside towards the outside over the front of the limb. Finish in front, not over the wound, and fix the end with a safety pin, sticking plaster, stitching, or by tearing the end into two tails and tying. The completed bandage should be comfortable, look neat and fulfil its purpose with no restriction of circulation.
This stage is referred to as late prophase or “prometaphase” to indicate the transition between prophase and metaphase order 800mg viagra vigour otc. During this stage cheap viagra vigour 800mg on line, the sister chromatids, with their attached microtubules, line up along a linear plane in the middle of the cell. The metaphase plate is the name for the plane through the center of the spindle on which the sister chromatids are positioned. The microtubules are now poised to pull apart the sister chromatids and bring one from each pair to each side of the cell. Anaphase takes place over a few minutes, when the pairs of sister chromatids are separated from one another, forming individual chromosomes once again. These chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell by their kinetochores, as the microtubules shorten. Each end of the cell receives one partner from each pair of sister chromatids, ensuring that the two new daughter cells will contain identical genetic material. Telophase is characterized by the formation of two new daughter nuclei at either end of the dividing cell. These newly formed nuclei surround the genetic material, which uncoils such that the chromosomes return to loosely packed chromatin. The cleavage furrow is a contractile band made up of microfilaments that forms around the midline of the cell during cytokinesis. One of these cells (the “stem cell”) enters its own cell cycle; able to grow and divide again at some future time. The other cell transforms into the functional cell of the tissue, typically replacing an “old” cell there. In some cases, a cell may divide its genetic material and grow in size, but fail to undergo cytokinesis. Cell Cycle Control A very elaborate and precise system of regulation controls direct the way cells proceed from one phase to the next in the cell cycle and begin mitosis.
Expanding the explanation of the withdrawal reflex can include inhibition of the opposing muscle viagra vigour 800 mg on line, or cross extension quality viagra vigour 800 mg, either of which increase the complexity of the example by involving more central neurons. A collateral branch of the sensory axon would inhibit another ventral horn motor neuron so that the triceps brachii do not contract and slow the withdrawal down. The cross extensor reflex provides a counterbalancing movement on the other side of the body, which requires another collateral of the sensory axon to activate contraction of the extensor muscles in the contralateral limb. For example, reading of this text starts with visual sensory input to the retina, which then projects to the thalamus, and on to the cerebral cortex. A sequence of regions of the cerebral cortex process the visual information, starting in the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe, and resulting in the conscious perception of these letters. As you continue reading, regions of the cerebral cortex in the frontal lobe plan how to move the eyes to follow the lines of text. The output from the cortex causes activity in motor neurons in the brain stem that cause movement of the extraocular muscles through the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. This example also includes sensory input (the retinal projection to the thalamus), central processing (the thalamus and subsequent cortical activity), and motor output (activation of neurons in the brain stem that lead to coordinated contraction of extraocular muscles). Stimuli from varying sources, and of different types, are received and changed into the electrochemical signals of the nervous system. A transmembrane protein receptor is a protein in the cell membrane that mediates a physiological change in a neuron, most often through the opening of ion channels or changes in the cell signaling processes. Other transmembrane proteins, which are not accurately called receptors, are sensitive to mechanical or thermal changes. Physical changes in these proteins increase ion flow across the membrane, and can generate an action potential or a graded potential in the sensory neurons. Receptor cells can be classified into types on the basis of three different criteria: cell type, position, and function.