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The group’s ability to function at a high express her concerns in more specific terms? In an effective group 20mg levitra soft with amex, power is used to “fix” participating in which of the following types immediate problems without considering of communication? An information giver or seeker is taking on Circle the letters that correspond to the best a maintenance role buy discount levitra soft 20mg online. Self-serving roles advance the needs of indi- vidual members at the group’s expense. Which of the following are levels of communi- describe how various factors influence cation that the nurse engages in during communication? Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The nurse should never admit a lack correlated with the patient’s neurologic of knowledge to the patient to avoid under- competence and cognitive development. Culture influences a person’s worldview available opportunities to communicate and relationships with the surrounding information to patients in routine caregiv- environment, religion, time, and others. Which of the following are recommended derived from the patient’s occupation, help techniques to help improve listening skills? A nurse performing a patient interview environment with arms and legs crossed should sit as close to the patient as possible in a relaxed position. Always maintain eye contact with the regardless of the patient’s sense of “private patient in a face-to-face pose. Communication is influenced by the way gestures to indicate that you are paying people value themselves, one another, and attention to what the patient is saying. Which of the following are qualities of a help- even if this creates a lull in the conversation. The helping relationship is characterized by patient rather than interrupting the patient’s an equal sharing of information. The helping relationship is built on the patient’s needs, not on those of the helping person.

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Dietary change is also central to the management of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes cheap levitra soft 20 mg mastercard. Dietary interventions are also used to improve the self-management of diabetes and aim to encourage diabetic patients to adhere to a more healthy diet order 20mg levitra soft with visa. A healthy diet therefore consists of high carbohydrate and low fat intake and links have been found between diet and both the onset of illnesses and their effective management. However, research indicates that many people across the world do not eat according to these recommendations. Therefore, dietary recommendations aimed at the Western world in the main emphasize a reduction in food intake and the avoidance of becoming overweight. For the majority of the developing world, however, undereating remains a problem resulting in physical and cognitive problems and poor resistance to illness due to lowered intakes of both energy and micronutrients. Recent data from the World Health Organization indicate that 174 million children under the age of 5 in the developing world are malnourished and show low weight for age and that 230 million are stunted in their growth. Such malnutrition is the highest in South Asia which is estimated to be five times higher than in the Western hemisphere, followed by Africa then Latin America. One large scale study carried out between 1989–90 and 1991–92 examined the eating behaviour of 16,000 male and female students aged between 18 and 24 from 21 European countries (Wardle et al. The results suggest that the prevalence of these fairly basic healthy eating practices was low in this large sample of young adults. In terms of gender differences the results showed that the women in this sample reported more healthy eating practices than the men. The results also provided insights into the different dietary practice across the different European countries. Overall, there was most variability between countries in terms of eating fibre, red meat, fruit and salt. Countries such as Sweden, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark ate the most fibre, whilst Italy, Hungary, Poland and Belgium ate the least.

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However purchase levitra soft 20mg with amex, correlations have been found the age of eight—the aggressive behavior of both boys between the viewing of violence and increased interper- and girls at this age was a strong predictor of their future sonal aggression purchase levitra soft 20 mg mastercard, both in childhood and, later, in adoles- aggression as adults. For instance, research conducted at the Geor- ence for violent television programs. Common sense suggests that the older typ- Further Reading ists would perform less well because of decreased hand- Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates. New York: Plenum plained the results by pointing out that the assumptions Press, 1994. New the older typists had made clever, efficient adjustments, York: Prentice-Hall, 1973. New ahead in the text, to compensate for their deficiency in York: Academic Press, 1992. Once a person has passed that age, brain functioning and mental ability are thought to Aging be determined by essentially three factors: mental habits, chronic disease, and the mind’s flexibility. The process by which the human body changes and matures over time, especially the means by The elderly populations of many Western countries which dying cells are not replaced in sufficient are the fastest growing segment of the population. In the numbers to maintain current levels of function; the United States, it is estimated that by the year 2030 there process by which human behavior alters with time. Such de- Psychological studies of aging populations began in mographic data will continue to focus attention on the earnest in the late nineteenth century when psychologists process of aging and the psychological problems faced by found that mental abilities deteriorated with age. Perhaps the most common psychological dis- abilities included memory and the types of mental per- order often associated with aging is depression. In some individuals, ver- ing to the National Institute of Mental Health, depression bal abilities were shown to deteriorate with advanced age, among the elderly range from 10 to 65 percent. Suicide although at a slower rate than other skills; with others, rates among the elderly have been increasing at alarming verbal abilities, especially vocabulary, may increase with rates. Such data have often been corroborated in tests with that between 1980 and 1986, suicides by persons aged 65 chimpanzees, where younger animals perform better in and older increased 23 percent among white men, 42 per- tests of memory and other such areas of mental function- cent among black men, and 17 percent among white ing. The highest suicide rates are for white men over deterioration of the body, so evident in the elderly, was age 85. The elderly comprise about 13 percent of the na- surely matched by a similar decline in the mind. One area where current research With the increase in the aging population, more has disproved a long-held belief about the aging of the focus is being placed on geriatric mental health issues, mind is in the death of neurons, formally thought to nec- including disabilities since more than half the population essarily lead to diminished mental functioning.

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In his id-ego-superego scheme of Further Reading human behavior levitra soft 20mg without a prescription, anxiety occurs when unconscious sex- Cleckley purchase levitra soft 20mg amex, Hervey M. New York: ual or aggressive tendencies conflict with physical or New American Library; St. New York: a change in heart rate, trembling, dizziness, and tension, Tavistock Publications, 1984. People Further Information who experience generalized anxiety disorder and panic Antisocial and Violent Behavior Branch. Division of Biometry disorders usually do not recognize a specific reason for and Applied Sciences. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by per- vasive feelings of worry and tension, often coupled with fatigue, rapid heart rate, impaired sleep, and other physi- ological symptoms. Any kind of stress can trigger inap- Anxiety/Anxiety disorders propriate, intense responses, and panic attacks can result. People suffering from generalized anxiety experience An unpleasant emotion triggered by anticipation of “free-floating” fears, that is, no specific event or situa- future events, memories of past events, or rumina- tions about the self. Stimulated by real or imagined dangers, anxiety af- It is believed that generalized anxiety disorder is, at flicts people of all ages and social backgrounds. When least to some extent, inherited, or is caused by chemical the anxiety results from irrational fears, it can disrupt or imbalances in the body. Some researchers believe anxiety is symptoms and the responsiveness of the patient, treat- synonymous with fear, occurring in varying degrees and ment may vary. Often, drugs in the benzodiazepine fami- in situations where people feel threatened by some dan- ly (Valium, Librium, and Xanax) are prescribed. Others describe anxiety as an unpleasant emotion drugs combat generalized anxiety by relaxing the cen- caused by unidentifiable dangers or dangers that, in real- tral nervous system, thus reducing tension and relaxing ity, pose no threat. They can cause drowsiness, making them an tic, known dangers, anxiety can be more difficult to iden- appropriate treatment for insomnia. Medication is most effec- Rather than attempting to formulate a strict defini- tive when combined with psychological therapies to re- tion of anxiety, most psychologists simply make the dis- duce the risk of recurrence. Behavior therapy is de- tinction between normal anxiety and neurotic anxiety, or signed to help modify and gain control over unwanted anxiety disorders.

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Although most people may This condition develops when a person accepts societal find that such occurrences trigger temporary feelings of expectations (to take over a family business discount levitra soft 20mg with visa, for exam- disillusionment or loneliness levitra soft 20 mg lowest price, a small percentage will be ple) that are counter to the person’s true goals, feelings, unable to overcome these events, and will feel hopelessly or desires (perhaps to be a teacher). They attribute this alien- In the workplace, jobs have become increasingly ation to a variety of societal conditions: the rapid specialized since the 1700s and the Industrial Revolu- changes in society during this period, the increase in al- tion. Workers may see little connection between the tasks cohol and drug abuse, violence in the media, or the lack they perform and the final product or service, and may of communal values in the culture at large. Some sociol- thus feel intense loneliness while in the midst of a busy ogists observe that individuals become alienated when work environment. When living in town, his feelings of alienation confronted him daily, since his ac- tivities did not reflect his true feelings and desires. Some become withdrawn and lethargic; others may react with hostility and violence; still others may be- 1897-1967 come disoriented, rejecting traditional values and behav- American humanist psychologist who developed a personality theory that emphasized individuality. As society undergoes rapid changes, and traditional values and behavioral standards are chal- Gordon Willard Allport was one of the great per- lenged, some people find little they can believe in and so sonality theorists of the twentieth century. His work was have difficulty constructing a reality in which they can a synthesis of individual personality traits and the tradi- find a place for themselves. It is for this reason that so- tional psychology of William James, which emphasized cial and cultural beliefs play such an important role in psychological traits that are common among humans. As a human- istic psychologist, he opposed both behavioral and psy- Psychologists help people cope with feelings of choanalytical theories of psychology. Above all, Allport alienation by developing exercises or designing specific believed in the uniqueness of the individual. He was educated in Some have proposed treating the epidemic of alien- Cleveland, Ohio, where the family moved when he was ation among America’s young people by fostering social six years old. John Allport was a physician with a clinic solutions rather than individual solutions. One such social in the family home and, as they were growing up, his solution is the idea of communitarianism, a movement sons assisted him in his practice.