By A. Volkar. Sacred Heart University.
Normally r Acidosiswithlowbicarbonateandnegativebaseexcess hydrogen (H+)ions are buffered by two main systems: denes a metabolic acidosis generic levitra 20mg with amex. If the patient is able the r Proteins including haemoglobin comprise a xed respiration will increase to reduce carbon dioxide and buffering system discount 10mg levitra with amex. Causes of metabolic aci- Pathophysiology dosisincludesalicylatepoisoning(seepage528),lactic Hypercalcaemia prevents membrane depolarisation acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (see page 460). Al- leadingtocentralnervoussystemeffects,decreasedmus- ternatively failure to excrete acid or increased loss of cle power and reduced gut mobility. Hyperkalaemia may occur as an im- rate;itcan cause acute or chronic renal failure; it can also portant complication (see page 7) particularly if there causenephrogenicdiabetesinsipidus(seepage445),uri- is also acute renal failure. This may result from any cause of hyperven- ening of the Q T interval but this is not associated with tilation including stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Early symptoms be caused by loss of acid from the gastrointestinal are often insidious, including loss of appetite, fatigue, tract (e. Hypokalaemia may occur toms of hypercalcaemia can be summarised as bones, (see page 8). Deposition of calcium in heart valves, coronary Aetiology arteries and other blood vessels may occur. Hyper- Important causes of hypercalcaemia are given in tension is relatively common, possibly due to renal im- Table 1. More than 80% of cases are due to malignancy pairment and also related to calcium-induced vasocon- or primary hyperparathyroidism (see page 446). The serum calcium should be checked and r Bisphosphonates can be used, which inhibit bone corrected for serum albumin because only the ionised turnoverandthereforereduceserumcalcium. Serum phos- Aetiology phate may be helpful, as it tends to be low in ma- Hypocalcaemia may be caused by r vitamin D deciency, lignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism but high in r hypoparathyroidism (after parathyroidectomy, thy- other causes. Pathophysiology r Patients should be assessed for uid status and any Hypocalcaemia causes increased membrane potentials, dehydration corrected. Rehydration reduces calcium which means that cells are more easily depolarised levels by a dilutional effect and by increasing renal and therefore causes prolongation of the Q T interval, clearance. Intravenous saline is often needed because which predisposes to cardiac arrhythmias. It may also many patients feel too nauseous to tolerate sufcient cause refractory hypotension and neuromuscular prob- oral uids and polyuria is common due to nephro- lems include tetany, seizures and emotional lability or genic diabetes insipidus.
A highly interconnected Knowledge Network would link multiple individual networks of parameters in a flexible way discount 20 mg levitra otc. A user could chose to interrogate only a small part of the network by limiting his or her analysis to a single information layer cheap levitra 10mg fast delivery, or even a small portion of this layer; alternatively, a user could interrogate the complex interrelationship of multiple parameters. High flexibility ensures easy cross-comparison and cross-correlation of any desired dataset, making it a versatile tool for a wide spectrum of applications ranging from basic research to clinical studies and healthy system administration. Widely accessible The Knowledge Network would need to be accessible and usable by a wide range of stakeholders from basic scientists to clinicians, health- care workers and the public. Furthermore, the available information would need to be mineable in ways that are custom-tailored to the needs of different users, possibly by implementation of purpose-specific user interfaces. The Proposed Knowledge Network Would Fundamentally Differ from Current Biomedical Information Systems Immense progress has been made during the past 25 years in organizing our knowledge of basic biology, health, and disease, even as many components of this knowledge base have grown super-exponentially. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 46 The key difference is that the information commons, which would underlie the other databases, would be individual-centric. An independent researcher, who was not involved in the study that contributed these entries, has no way of knowing that they are from the same individual. As a consequence, relationships between multiple parameters that determine disease status in a given individual are impossible to extract. This information was not collected in a way that allows the individual to be the central organizing principle, and no amount of redesign of the inter-connections between different entries in the current system could achieve the goals the Committee has outlined. The Committee would like to emphasize the novelty and power of an Information Commons that is individual-centric. Despite significant challenges to constructing an individual-centric Information Commons, the Committee concluded that this is a realistic undertaking and would be essential to the success of the Knowledge-Network/ New Taxonomy initiative. Generalizations must be built up from information on large numbers of individuals. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 47 is lost when molecular profiles, data on other aspects of an individual s circumstances, and health histories are abstracted away from the individual at the very beginning of investigations into the determinants of health and disease.
The pink puffer is typical of relatively of airways and luminal narrowing resulting in airway pure emphysema and the blue bloater is typical of rel- obstruction cheap 10mg levitra with visa. Mucus respiratory bronchioles whilst the more distal alveolar gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia can be quantied by ducts and air spaces tend to be well preserved buy levitra 20mg without prescription. The theReidindexwhichistheratioofglandtowallthickness alveolar dilatation results from loss of elastic recoil in within the bronchus. Smoking Microscopy also causes glandular hypertrophy (chronic bronchi- Both emphysema and chronic bronchitis are inam- tis) and has an adverse effect on surfactant favouring matory diseases of the lung. In pan-acinar emphysema destruction involves the Eosinophilsarealsoseenespeciallyinchronicbronchitis, whole of the acinus. Theclinicalfeaturesdepend Complications on the degrees of chronic bronchitis and of emphysema Airway obstruction and alveolar destruction eventually contributing to the overall picture. Pulmonary vasculature re- ductive of sputum, expiratory wheeze and progres- sponds to hypoxia by vasoconstriction which increases sive shortness of breath. Symptoms of emphysema the arterial pressure, causing pulmonary artery hyper- are dominated by progressive breathlessness, initially tension, which leads to right heart failure (cor pul- only on exertion but eventually on mild exertion such monale). Cyanosis, hypercapnia and cor r Bronchodilators:Shortactingbronchodilatorspro- pulmonale develop only late in the disease after pro- duce signicant clinical benet, helping patients gressive decline in lung function. Amoxycillin resis- feel less short of breath (although objective im- tant Haemophilus respiratory infections are common in provement in lung function tests may be slight). Long acting 2 agonists and bacterial or mixed infections are common resulting in longactinganticholinergicsimprovelungfunction, major morbidity and mortality. There may also be a deciency sputum is purulent, should be given promptly in of bloodvesselsintheperipheralhalfofthelungelds acute exacerbations in an attempt to minimise lung in comparison to the proximal vessels. Management 6 Surgical management 1 Non-pharmacological: By far the most important fac- r Patients of young age who are otherwise t and well tor that can affect the prognosis and progression of may be considered for lung or heart/lung trans- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is stopping plantation. Physio- diopulmonary bypass and is performed through a therapy may help clear sputum, and pulmonary re- sternotomy. Bilateral or single lung transplants are habilitation programmes improve exercise capacity performed through a lateral thoracotomy possibly and quality of life.